Mass Shooting Incidents-An Analysis-EMS-Fire-Private Safety-Part 1

De Faakto Intelligence Research Observatory

Part 1

Active & Mass Shooting Incidents-An Analysis for EMS, Fire Services & Private Safety Practitioners






Active Shooter & Mass Shooting Incidents



Active shooters are defined as individual(s) that actively engage in killing people or attempting to kill people in a confined or populated area.  Once the active shooter has killed or injured 4 or more people they are defined as a mass murderer. (FBI, 2018) Active shooters focus on soft target areas that are highly populated, easily accessed, generally lacking security.  Mass shooting events most commonly occur in businesses (45%), schools (25%), and government facilities (10%). (, 2018) While the USA has the most mass shootings, the problem is not unique to the United States and has occurred in several nations.


Countries with the Most Mass Shootings, 1966-2012 (CNN, 2017)

  • United States-90
  • Philippines-18
  • Russia-15
  • Yemen-11



Mass shooting incidents continue to be a threat to public safety and security. There have been 188 active shootings in the United States in the first half of 2018 and 346 mass shootings in 2017. (ABC News, 2018) According to a Study by Harvard School of Public Health, “One killing or shooting increases the chances that others will occur within about two weeks, an “infection” that lasts about 13 days. (CNN, 2017) Active & Mass shooting events will persist, and first responders need to prepare accordingly.  Fire Departments, Emergency Medical Services & Private Safety Practitioners should develop training programs and practice for serious shooting incidents.



Enhanced active shooter & mass casualty incident training at:

  • Service unit level
  • Allied inter services level


Planning & Coordination

  • Organizational pre-planning with Law Enforcement
  • Coordinated integrated planning, response, treatment & care


Implementation of Hartford Consensus

  • Early hemorrhage control to improve survival
  • Threat acronym


THREAT concepts are simple, basic and proven

  • T-Threat suppression
  • H – Hemorrhage control
  • RE – Rapid Extrication to safety
  • A – Assessment by medical providers
  • T – Transport to definitive care


  • Life-threatening bleeding from extremity wounds are best controlled by use of tourniquets
  • Internal bleeding resulting from penetrating wounds to the chest and trunk are best addressed through expedited transportation to a hospital setting



  • Hemorrhage control techniques
  • Use of
  • Tourniquets
  • Pressure dressings
  • Haemostatic agents
  • Triage and transport
  • Recognition lethal internal hemorrhage torso trauma
  • Definitive transport
  • Tactical emergency casualty care (TECC)




  • Protective gear for personnel exposed to risks
  • Consider ballistic vests, trauma plates & Kevlar helmets
  • Flame resistant uniforms that reduce severity of burns
  • Ballistic safety glasses


Training & Awareness for

  • Fire hazards from initial blast IEDs
  • Secondary devices at main and secondary scenes


Development and Implementation of

  • Special response units such as tactical EMS, capable of operations in active shooter incidents (U.S. Dept. Homeland Security, 2013)




FBI-US Government-Active Shooter Study: Quick Reference Guide (2014)

AlertFind-Active Shooter in 2018: Key Stats and Facts (2018)

ABC News-Mass Shooting in the U.S.: When and Where They Have Occurred (2018)

CNN News-Why the U.S. has the Most Mass Shootings (2017)

CNN News-Mass Shootings in America are a Serious Problem and these Charts Show Just Why (2017)

US Government-Dept. Homeland Security-US Fire Administration-Fire EMS Operational Considerations for Active Shooters & Mass Casualty Incidents (2013)


Disclaimer-De Faakto Intelligence Research is provided to first responders for situational awareness, advice, guidance and educational purposes. Intelligence is perishable and fluid.  Intelligence is updated and reassessed as new information becomes available. Sources are evidence based and multiple sources are used when possible. Sometimes intelligence assessments present gaps in information, this is a reality in intelligence led operations and gaps are filled when information presents.  Emergency first responders should always follow best industry practices, organizational policy-procedures and regulatory standards.